února 25, 2009

Teropodní zuby ze spodní křídy Maroka a jejich paleogeografické implikace

Nová studie paleontologů Fabiena Knolla a José Ignacia Ruiz-Omeñacy popisuje teropodní zuby z nejspodnější křídy (stupeň berrias) marocké lokality Anoual. Tyto fosilie jsou důležité, protože pochází z jedné z velmi mála lokalit tohoto stáří na celém světě a dokonce jediné na území Gondwany. Tvar teropodích zubů pocházejících z Anoualu je různorodý a patřil tedy různým sub-kladům Theropoda. Většina materiálů zřejmě náleží kladu Dromaeosauridae - pokud ano, šlo by podle abstraktu o velmi raný výskyt zástupců kladu (přestože jsou to právě nálezy zubů, které naznačují, že klad Dromaeosauridae mohl vzniknout již ve střední juře). Paleogeografická poloha Anoualu by mohla poskytnout informace o rozptýleních, ke kterým u suchozemských faun došlo v průběhu druhohor. Zdokumentován je vliv Laurasie v podobě přítomnosti kladu Velociraptorinae, který vznikl právě na zmíněném severním superkontinentu. Teropodní fauna z Anoual celkově nasvědčuje, že mezi Laurasií a Gondwanou existovalo spojení, táhnoucí se napříč oceánem Tethys. Toto spojení dovolovalo suchozemské faunální výměny během svrchní jury - studie se zmiňuje i o spojení v období spodní křídy, kterým se podrobněji zabývala studie José Canuda, o níž jsem na blog psal včera. Fosilní záznam Anoualu také dokládá, že zde žili teropodi velmi malých tělesných rozměrů. Podle dostupného materiálu bohužel nelze zjistit, zda je malá velikost exemplářů fylogenetická nebo ontogenetická.

Zdroj:

http://forum.wildprehistory.org/

Abstrakt studie:

Knoll, F., and Ruiz-Omeñaca, J.I. 2009. Theropod teeth from the basalmost Cretaceous of Anoual (Morocco) and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Geological Magazine. doi: 10.1017/S0016756809005950.

The theropod teeth from the Berriasian (Early Cretaceous) site of Anoual (N Morocco) are described. The assemblage is important in that it comes from one of the very few dinosaur sites of this age globally and the only one for the whole of Gondwana. The theropod teeth from Anoual are morphologically diverse. Most of the material possibly belongs to the clade Dromaeosauridae, which would be an early occurrence for this taxon. The palaeogeographic position of Anoual enables it to provide data on the dispersal events that affected terrestrial faunas during Mesozoic times. A Laurasian influence is evidenced by the presence of Velociraptorinae and, on the whole, the theropod fauna from Anoual provides support for the existence of a trans-Tethyan passage allowing terrestrial faunal interchanges during Late Jurassic and/or earliest Cretaceous times. Additionally, Anoual records the existence of diminutive theropods. However, it cannot yet be determined whether the small size of the specimens is genetic or ontogenetic.

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